Controversies surrounding the validity and accuracy of carbon dating
He mentions the hundreds of eyewitnesses who could verify the resurrection (1 Corinthians 15:6).
Paul rests the truth of Christianity on the historicity of the resurrection (1 Corinthians -19).
Assuming the basic integrity and reasonable accuracy of the writers, this would place the reliability of the New Testaments beyond reasonable doubt. Since the book was composed in Asia Minor and this fragment was found in Egypt, some circulation time is demanded, surely placing composition of John within the first century.
Of the four Gospels alone there are 19,368 citations by the church fathers from the late first century on. Whole books (Bodmer Papyri) are available from 200.
Using the accepted methods of papyrology and palaeography, O'Callahan compared sequences of letters with existing documents and eventually identified nine fragments as belonging to one gospel, Acts, and few epistles.
Some of these were dated slightly later than 50, but still extremely early: Both friends and critics acknowledge that, if valid, O'Callahan's conclusions will revolutionise New Testament theories.
Roman historian Colin Hemer has provided powerful evidence that Acts was written between AD 60 and 62. There is no mention in Acts of the crucial event of the fall of Jerusalem in 70. There is no hint of the outbreak of the Jewish War in 66 or of serious deterioration of relations between Romans and Jews before that time. There is no hint of the deterioration of Christian relations with Rome during the Neronian persecution of the late 60s. There is no hint of the death of James at the hands of the Sanhedrin in ca. At that time a new phase of conflict began with Christianity. Acts seems to antedate the arrival of Peter in Rome and implies that Peter and John were alive at the time of the writing. The prominence of 'God-fearers' in the synagogues may point to a pre-70 date, after which there were few Gentile inquiries and converts to Jerusalem. Luke gives insignificant details of the culture of an early, Julio-Claudian period. Areas of controversy described presume that the temple was still standing. Adolf Harnack contended that Paul's prophecy in Acts (cf. If so, the book must have appeared before those events. Christian terminology used in Acts reflects an earlier period.
Harnack points to use of always designates 'the Messiah', and is not a proper name for Jesus. The confident tone of Acts seems unlikely during the Neronian persecutions of Christians and the Jewish War with the Rome during the late 60s. The action ends very early in the 60s, yet the description in Acts 27 and 28 is written with a vivid immediacy.
Surrounding persons, places, and events of Christ's birth were all historical. Albright wrote, 'We can already say emphatically that there is no long any basis for dating any book of the New Testament after about AD 80, two full generations before the date between 130 and 150 given by the more radical New Testament critics of today.' (, 136). Ignatius referred to six Pauline epistles in about 110, and between 110 and 150 Polycarp quoted from all four gospels, Acts, and most of Paul's epistles.
By these dates they argue that the New Testament documents, especially the Gospels, contain mythology.
The writers created the events contained, rather than reported them.
Further, Paul speaks of more than 500 eyewitnesses to the resurrection who were still alive when he wrote (15:6). It is one of the best attested books of any kind from the ancient world.
Specifically mentioned are the twelve apostles and James the brother of Jesus. There is a ring of authenticity to the book from beginning to end. Paul mentions 500 who had seen Christ, most of whom were still alive. The contents harmonize with what has been learned about Corinth during that era. Along with 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians and Galatians are well attested and early.